|Chosen papers on organic farming
Multifunctionality of organic farming
Input-output analysis of Colle Valle Agri Natura farm
Most of the ecological farm has many functions, not only simple producers, growers, processors, or suppliers. Basically are two direction of this farming system. Either of them is producing of goods, and the other is saving of environment. According to these we can see, that the organic farming has social functions and also environmental functions (figure 19).
Figure 19 Objectives of organic farming
Now look at shortly the components of the farming system (figure 20), and after I sketch a short analysis about a concrete Italian model farm based on the Model of farming system (Caporali, 2000).
Figure 20 Model of a farming system (Caporali, 1991, 2000).
Displaying of the farm
The farm lay along the Tevere River in Italy in North-Lazio region, not so far from Viterbo. The territory is a 320 hectare biologically-grown area, 120 hectares area hillside, and 130 hectare area in the valley.
They are growing many types of plants on the farm, from which the most important are hazelnut, vineyards, olive trees, plum and herbaceous crops. On the other hand they are occupied with sylviculture and sheep sheering.
They are gaining many plants which they are cultivating therefore producing lots of end product. For example they have stone mills with which they can crush the clean seeds which have been harvested and then they are thrashed. Everything which is cultivated originates from organic production and even in the process of production they are using procedures which are not prohibited.in the production of economic products
Based on the Model of farming system (Caporali, 1991) it can be demonstrated in the following way (input-output analyzis):
- the important thing (capital) is money from selling of the product
- subsidies (after the ground, and after the cultivating plant species)
- management of this farm
- they get money from fresh product, but the fresh product is also output (seeds of durum wheat, seeds of sunflower, Trifolium incarnatum, nuts, honey, milk (also ricotta), and not only the olive extra vergine oil, but also the grape is sailed
- they sell services also (education, farm visit for the tutorization)
- the evidence that is gathered helps the farm leaders work in order to optimise their ecological production in every way. energy savings
- manpower and machines are the input energy. We can also rank in this category animal waste and compost which comes from the parts of dead plants. All of the afore-mentioned nutrients are used for regenerating the field’s soil texture.
- the farmer chooses an appropriate plantation for the micro-climate and the characteristic of the field. All of the species of grapes have existed here for centuries and they have become acustomed to the climate of the territory. They are cultivating them in a traditional Etruscan way. The olive and the hazelnut are also grown in these fields. These traditional species have a stronger growth and their resistance is also good. The lower energy output to protecting of the plants is realizable as energy input.
- the used fuel with the the working of machines (e.g. usage of the principle minimal tillage was also seen in the huzelnut and olive groves)
- usage of natural manure which is produced by animals
- usage of compost of both grapes and olives
- they are flooding with a drip system
- the feeding of animals. (Wich not only the planted fodder is playing a big role but also the allowing of grazing in the fields. By this time the animal waste makes a positive effect on the plantation)
- it is possible here to list everything which is necessary for plantation, processing and animal welfare, these are machines and equipment, such as power machines, cleaning, crushing, packaging apparatus and milking.
- a field with natural sources. From these natural sources we should highlight the Tevere River and the Vezza stream, which are also used for irrigation besides the artesisan wells and natural springs which are also both used to feed animals. Another characteristic of the environment is that it is full of forests. Land is divided by hedgerows which increase its diversification. They feature also as natural green borders for grazing animals and play an important part in the conservation of the genetic diversity.
- plant products are after the harvest
- saled products
- observation of the changes of the market (they observe wich is the best product in the market, they are seeking the buyers, and also look for the niche of every product).
- technical informations
- publications (books, journals, technical papers)
- journal for equipments, cultivating technics
- journal for market studiing
- registration system (they collect the number of visitors)
- controll -> certification
- planning, and researching -> e.g. constructing an eco-hotel
- Caporali, Fabio, 2000. Ecologia per l’Agricoltura. Utet- libreria, Torino